1. Fluent speech and auditory feedback

    1.1. Speaking as a sequential behavior

    1.2. Speaking programs and acoustic word forms

    1.3. The automatic self-monitoring of speech

    1.4. A simple model of speech processing

    1.5. Expectations – the basis of self-monitoring

2. The causes of stuttering

    2.1. The immediate cause: invalid error signals

       2.1.1. Excursus: other theories

    2.2. The impact of breathing

    2.3. The root cause: misallocation of attention

    2.4. The onset of childhood stuttering

    2.5. Persistent stuttering

3. Some special issues

    3.1. Fluency-enhancing conditions and the way they work

    3.2. Attention and the lateralization of speech processing

    3.3. The predisposition for stuttering

       3.3.1. Attention deficits / hyperactivity

       3.3.2. Auditory deficits

       3.3.3. Motor or language deficits?

    3.4. Consequences for therapy

4. Stuttering and white matter development

    4.1. White matter deficits – the cause of stuttering?

    4.2. White matter development in children who stutter

    4.3. Attention and working memory

    4.4. The dual stream model


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List of Tables and Figures

Table 1: Brain activation in secondary auditory areas

Figure 1: Feedback-based and feed-forward control

Figure 2: Acoustic word forms and speaking programs

Figure 3: Internal and external feedback loop

Figure 4: Model of speech processing

Figure 5: Speech error versus stuttering

Figure 6: The sequences of breathing and speaking

Figure 7: Disrupted feedback of speech and of breathing

Figure 8: The causal chain of a stutter event

Figure 9: The vicious cycle of stuttering

Figure 10: Fluency-enhancing conditions

Figure 11: Attention and the lack of lateralization

Figure 12: Predispostion and influencing factors

Figure 13: Superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)

Figure 14: Extreme capsule fiber system (ECFS)

Figure 15: Short-term memory by circuiting excitation

Figure 16: Dual (dorsal/ventral) stream model

Figure 17: Function of the dorsal stream: nonword repetition

Figure 18: Function of the dorsal stream: normal speech


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