Contents

 
Introduction

 
1. Fluent speech and auditory feedback

    1.1. Speaking as a sequential behavior

    1.2. Speaking programs and acoustic word forms

    1.3. The automatic self-monitoring of speech

    1.4. A simple model of speech processing

    1.5. Expectations – the basis of self-monitoring

 
2. The causes of stuttering

    2.1. The immediate cause: invalid error signals

       2.1.1. Excursus: other theories

    2.2. The impact of breathing

    2.3. The root cause: misallocation of attention

    2.4. The onset of childhood stuttering

    2.5. Persistent stuttering

 
3. Some special issues

    3.1. Fluency-enhancing conditions and the way they work

    3.2. Attention and the lateralization of speech processing

    3.3. The predisposition for stuttering

       3.3.1. Attention deficits / hyperactivity

       3.3.2. Auditory deficits

       3.3.3. Motor or language deficits?

    3.4. Consequences for therapy

 
4. Stuttering and white matter development

    4.1. White matter deficits – the cause of stuttering?

    4.2. White matter development in children who stutter

    4.3. Attention and working memory

    4.4. The dual stream model

 

to the top

 

List of Tables and Figures

Table 1: Brain activation in secondary auditory areas

Figure 1: Feedback-based and feed-forward control

Figure 2: Acoustic word forms and speaking programs

Figure 3: Internal and external feedback loop

Figure 4: Model of speech processing

Figure 5: Speech error versus stuttering

Figure 6: The sequences of breathing and speaking

Figure 7: Disrupted feedback of speech and of breathing

Figure 8: The causal chain of a stutter event

Figure 9: The vicious cycle of stuttering

Figure 10: Fluency-enhancing conditions

Figure 11: Attention and the lack of lateralization

Figure 12: Predispostion and influencing factors

Figure 13: Superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)

Figure 14: Extreme capsule fiber system (ECFS)

Figure 15: Short-term memory by circuiting excitation

Figure 16: Dual (dorsal/ventral) stream model

Figure 17: Function of the dorsal stream: nonword repetition

Figure 18: Function of the dorsal stream: normal speech

 

to the top