A Theory of Stuttering
1.1. Speaking as a sequential behavior
1.2. Speaking programs and acoustic word forms
1.3. The automatic self-monitoring of speech
1.4. A simple model of speech processing
1.5. Expectations – the basis of self-monitoring
2.1. The immediate cause: invalid error signals
2.1.1. Excursus: other theories
2.2. The impact of breathing
2.3. The root cause: misallocation of attention
2.4. The onset of childhood stuttering
2.5. Persistent stuttering
3.1. Fluency-enhancing conditions and the way they work
3.2. Attention and the lateralization of speech processing
3.3. The predisposition for stuttering
3.3.1. Attention deficits / hyperactivity
3.3.2. Auditory deficits
3.3.3. Motor or language deficits?
3.4. Consequences for therapy
4.1. White matter deficits – the cause of stuttering?
4.2. White matter development in children who stutter
4.3. Attention and working memory
4.4. The dual stream model
5.1. Transient stuttering
5.2. Persistent stuttering
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Table 1: Brain activation in secondary auditory areas
Table 2: Structure of “Why does stuttering disappear...”
Figure 1: Feedback-based and feed-forward control
Figure 2: Acoustic word forms and speaking programs
Figure 3: Internal and external feedback loop
Figure 4: Model of speech processing
Figure 5: Speech error versus stuttering
Figure 6: The sequences of breathing and speaking
Figure 7: Disrupted feedback of speech and of breathing
Figure 8: The causal chain of a stutter event
Figure 9: The vicious cycle of stuttering
Figure 10: Fluency-enhancing conditions
Figure 11: Attention and the lack of lateralization
Figure 12: Predispostion and influencing factors
Figure 13: Superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)
Figure 14: Extreme capsule fiber system (ECFS)
Figure 15: Short-term memory by circuiting excitation
Figure 16: Dual (dorsal/ventral) stream model
Figure 17: Function of the dorsal stream: nonword repetition
Figure 18: Function of the dorsal stream: normal speech
Figure 19: Development of transient stuttering
Figure 20: Development of persistent stuttering
Figure 21: The two components of stuttering
Figure 22: The two components – update
Figure 23: Basal ganglia – direct pathway
Figure 24: Basal ganglia, cerebellum, indirect pathway
2022-11.11: Stuttering, basal ganglia, and cerebellum
2022-9-28: Auditory processing deficits and stuttering
2022-9-19: Stuttering disappeared after cerebellar injury
2020-12-14: Why does stuttering disappear...
2020-8-23: Resonant voice against stuttering
2020-5-11: Are internal forward models involved in suttering?
2019-11-14: Pre-speech auditory modulation
2019-10-14: Wastepipe toobaloo and echo mic
2019-7-14: The two components of stuttering
2019-6-13: Wernicke’s aphasia: Why do they not stutter?
2019-5-18: The debate on the role of auditory feedback other...
2019-3-5: When we hear ourselves saying something other...
2018-12-1: The Toobaloo
2018-11-7: Pre-speech facilitation of excitability in the motor cortex
2018-10-17: Interruption after error: voluntary or automatic?
2018-9-27: The Main Interruption Rule: Is it obsolete?
2018-8-16: Speech sound discrimination and stuttering.
2018-7-29: Anomalous regulation of visual attention in children who stutter.
2018-7-1: Shadow speech – normal and inverse.
2018-2-19: tDCS: a novel means for the treatment of stuttering.
2018-1-2: Why are right frontal brain areas overly active?
2017-12-16: DAF, stuttering, and central auditory processing.
2017-11-28: The mystery of the DAF effect on stuttering .
© Torsten Hesse
Last edit: 14-7-2019