1. Fluent speech and auditory feedback

    1.1. Speaking as a sequential behavior

    1.2. Speaking programs and acoustic word forms

    1.3. The automatic self-monitoring of speech

    1.4. A simple model of speech processing

    1.5. Expectations – the basis of self-monitoring

2. The causes of stuttering

    2.1. The immediate cause: invalid error signals

       2.1.1. Excursus: other theories

    2.2. The impact of breathing

    2.3. The root cause: misallocation of attention

    2.4. The onset of childhood stuttering

    2.5. Persistent stuttering

3. Some special issues

    3.1. Fluency-enhancing conditions and the way they work

    3.2. Attention and the lateralization of speech processing

    3.3. The predisposition for stuttering

       3.3.1. Attention deficits / hyperactivity

       3.3.2. Auditory deficits

       3.3.3. Motor or language deficits?

    3.4. Consequences for therapy

4. Stuttering and white matter

    4.1. White matter deficits – the cause of stuttering?

    4.2. White matter development in children who stutter

    4.3. Attention and working memory

    4.4. The dual stream model

5. The development of stuttering

    5.1. Transient stuttering

    5.2. Persistent stuttering


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List of tables and figures

Table 1: Brain activation in secondary auditory areas

Table 2: Structure of “Why does stuttering disappear...”

Figure 1: Feedback-based and feed-forward control

Figure 2: Acoustic word forms and speaking programs

Figure 3: Internal and external feedback loop

Figure 4: Model of speech processing

Figure 5: Speech error versus stuttering

Figure 6: The sequences of breathing and speaking

Figure 7: Disrupted feedback of speech and of breathing

Figure 8: The causal chain of a stutter event

Figure 9: The vicious cycle of stuttering

Figure 10: Fluency-enhancing conditions

Figure 11: Attention and the lack of lateralization

Figure 12: Predispostion and influencing factors

Figure 13: Superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)

Figure 14: Extreme capsule fiber system (ECFS)

Figure 15: Short-term memory by circuiting excitation

Figure 16: Dual (dorsal/ventral) stream model

Figure 17: Function of the dorsal stream: nonword repetition

Figure 18: Function of the dorsal stream: normal speech

Figure 19: Development of transient stuttering

Figure 20: Development of persistent stuttering

Figure 21: The two components of stuttering

Figure 22: The two components – update

Figure 23: Basal ganglia – direct pathway

Figure 24: Basal ganglia, cerebellum, indirect pathway


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List of blog entries

2022-11.11: Stuttering, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

2022-9-28: Auditory processing deficits and stuttering

2022-9-19: Stuttering disappeared after cerebellar injury

2020-12-14: Why does stuttering disappear...

2020-8-23: Resonant voice against stuttering

2020-5-11: Are internal forward models involved in suttering?

2019-11-14: Pre-speech auditory modulation

2019-10-14: Wastepipe toobaloo and echo mic

2019-7-14: The two components of stuttering

2019-6-13: Wernicke’s aphasia: Why do they not stutter?

2019-5-18: The debate on the role of auditory feedback other...

2019-3-5: When we hear ourselves saying something other...

2018-12-1: The Toobaloo

2018-11-7: Pre-speech facilitation of excitability in the motor cortex

2018-10-17: Interruption after error: voluntary or automatic?

2018-9-27: The Main Interruption Rule: Is it obsolete?

2018-8-16: Speech sound discrimination and stuttering.

2018-7-29: Anomalous regulation of visual attention in children who stutter.

2018-7-1: Shadow speech – normal and inverse.

2018-2-19: tDCS: a novel means for the treatment of stuttering.

2018-1-2: Why are right frontal brain areas overly active?

2017-12-16: DAF, stuttering, and central auditory processing.

2017-11-28: The mystery of the DAF effect on stuttering .


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