1. Fluent speech and auditory feedback

    1.1. Speaking as a sequential behavior

    1.2. Speaking programs and acoustic word forms

    1.3. The automatic self-monitoring of speech

    1.4. Expectations – the basis of self-monitoring

    1.5. Inner speech

2. The theory of stuttering

    2.1. The immediate cause: invalid error signals

    2.2. The role of cerebellum and basal ganglia

    2.3. Similar theories

    2.4. The root cause: misallocation of attention

    2.5. Stuttering at speech onset

    2.6. Childhood stuttering

    2.7. Persistent stuttering

3. Some special issues

    3.1. Fluency-enhancing conditions and the way they work

    3.2. Attention and the lateralization of speech processing

    3.3. The predisposition for stuttering

       3.3.1. Attention deficits / hyperactivity

       3.3.2. Auditory deficits

    3.4. Consequences for therapy

4. Stuttering and white matter

    4.1. White matter deficits – the cause of stuttering?

    4.2. White matter development in children who stutter

    4.3. Attention and working memory

    4.4. The dual stream model


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List of tables and figures

Table 1: Brain activation in secondary auditory areas

Table 2: Structure of “Why does stuttering disappear...”

Figure 1: Feedback-based and feed-forward control

Figure 2: Acoustic word forms and speaking programs

Figure 3: Internal and external feedback loop

Figure 4: Model of speech processing

Figure 5: Speech error versus stuttering

Figure 6: The causal chain of a stutter event

Figure 7: The development of transient stuttering

Figure 8: The development of persistent stuttering

Figure 9: The vicious circle of stuttering

Figure 10: Fluency-enhancing conditions

Figure 11: Attention and the lack of lateralization

Figure 12: Predispostion and influencing factors

Figure 13: Superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)

Figure 14: Extreme capsule fiber system (ECFS)

Figure 15: Short-term memory by circuiting excitation

Figure 16: Dual (dorsal/ventral) stream model

Figure 17: Function of the dorsal stream: nonword repetition

Figure 18: Function of the dorsal stream: normal speech

Figuure 19 (removed)

Figure 20 (removed)

Figure 21: The two components of stuttering

Figure 22: The two components – update

Figure 23: Basal ganglia – direct pathway

Figure 24: Basal ganglia, cerebellum, indirect pathway

Figure 25: The two components, further update


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List of blog entries

2024-1-12: Let’s put the puzzle together!

2022-11-11: Stuttering, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

2022-9-28: Auditory processing deficits and stuttering

2022-9-19: Stuttering disappeared after cerebellar injury

2020-12-14: Why does stuttering disappear...

2020-8-23: Resonant voice against stuttering

2020-5-11: Are internal forward models involved in suttering?

2019-11-14: Pre-speech auditory modulation

2019-10-14: Wastepipe toobaloo and echo mic

2019-7-14: The two components of stuttering

2019-6-13: Wernicke’s aphasia: Why do they not stutter?

2019-5-18: The debate on the role of auditory feedback other...

2019-3-5: When we hear ourselves saying something other...

2018-12-1: The Toobaloo

2018-11-7: Pre-speech facilitation of excitability in the motor cortex

2018-10-17: Interruption after error: voluntary or automatic?

2018-9-27: The Main Interruption Rule: Is it obsolete?

2018-8-16: Speech sound discrimination and stuttering.

2018-7-29: Anomalous regulation of visual attention in children who stutter.

2018-7-1: Shadow speech – normal and inverse.

2018-2-19: tDCS: a novel means for the treatment of stuttering.

2018-1-2: Why are right frontal brain areas overly active?

2017-12-16: DAF, stuttering, and central auditory processing.

2017-11-28: The mystery of the DAF effect on stuttering .


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