Subject index

Section numbers following the items are linked
with a corresponding paragraph in the section.
Section number 0 refers to the Introduction,
a, b, c... refer to different paragraphs in a section,
R refers to remarks to edits (updates, corrections).
Note that the aim of this website is to present a theory;
thus terms are mainly treated in the context of the theory.
 

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W    X    Y    Z 

 

A

Acoustic word forms  1.2,  1.4
Acquired (neurogenic) stuttering  0,  2.1.1
Actor – stutterers working as an ~  1.2,  2.1
Adaptation effect  FAQs,  2.1
Alm (2004), theory by ~  2.1,  2.1.1
Altered auditory feedback (AAF)  0 a, b,  1.1,  3.1
Analysis-by-synthesis model  1.5.a, b,  2.1,  4.4
Anticipation of stuttering – emergence  2.5
Anticipatory struggle hypothesis  2.5
Aphasia  1.2.a, b,  3.1
Attention
– allocation / misallocation of ~  2.2.a, b, c,  2.3,  2.4,  2.5.a. b,  3.2,  3.3,  3.4
– and speech perception  2.3
– and working memory  4.3
– regulation deficit / ADHD  0,  3.3
– to breathing  2.2.a, b,  3.4
– to external / internal feedback (Levelt model)  1.3.a, b,  3.1
– to the auditory channel  2.3.a, b,  2.4  3.1.a, b,  3.2,  3.4
Audiophonatory coupling  1.1,  2.4.a, b,  3.4
Auditory areas of the cortex  0
Auditory discomfort – threshold of ~  3.3
Auditory feedback  0,  1.3,  3.1
– in the child’s speech development  2.4
– processing of ~  2.3,  3.3
Auditory gating  3.3.a, b
Auditory masking (fluency-enhancing condition)  0,  1.3,  3.1.a, b, c
Auditory processing  3.3
~ disorder (APD)  3.3
Automatic versus voluntary (volitional) behavior  3.2
Avoidance behavior  2.2,  2.3,  2.5

 

B

Babbling period in the child’s speech development  2.4
Backward-masking threshold  3.3
Basal ganglia  2.1,  2.1.1,  3.2
Brain
– analogous versus digital information processing  4.3,  4.4
– anatomy / structure differences in speech-related areas  3.2,  4.1,  4.2
– dual (dorsal/ventral) stream model  4.4
– imaging studies with stutterers  0,  2.3.a, b, c,  3.1.a, b,  3.2,  4.1,  4.2
Brainstem  3.3
Breakdown of speech control  0,  2.5
Breathing  2.2,  3.4.a, b
– techniques in the treatment of stuttering  2.2.a, b
Broca’s aphasia  1.2
Broca’s area  3.2,  4.1,  4.2,  4.4
Brown et al. (2005) Meta analysis – citation  0
Budde, Barron, & Fox (2014) Meta analysis  0,  2.3,  3.1,  3.2

 

C

Central auditory processing  3.3
Cerebellum  1.1,  2.1.a, b,  4.2
Childhood stuttering  2.2.a, b,  2.3,  2.4,  2.5,  3.3,  4.2
Chorus reading  0,  3.1
Chronification of stuttering  R
Circuing excitation (working memory)  4.3
Cochlea  3.2.  3.3
Cocktail party effect  2.3
Communication situation and stuttering  2.3,  2.5.a, b,  3.3
Compensation – in the brain  3.2.a, b,  4.2
Concepts (contents of words)  1.2.a, b
Connected speech  1.1,  2.4
Connectivity – between speech-related brain areas  3.2,  4.1,  4.2
Core symptoms of stuttering  2.1
Corpus callosum  3.2,  4.2
Covert Repair Hypothesis  2.1.1

 

D

Delayed auditory feedback (DAF)  1.1,  3.1,  3.2,  3.4
Desensitization  3.4
Distractibility  3.3
Distraction of attention from auditory feedback  0,  2.3,  3.1.a, b
Distribution of stuttering events  2.5
DIVA (Directions Into Velocities of Articulators) model  2.1.1
Dopamine (neurotransmitter)  2.1.1
Dual premotor model  2.1.1
Dual (dorsal/ventral) stream model  4.4
Dual task conditions  3.3.a, b, c,  4.3

 

E

Efference copy theory  1.3,  1.5.a, b
Electronic speech aids  3.1,  3.4
Error detection / ~ repair  1.4  1.5,  2.1.a, b, c, d, e,  2.1.1,  2.4,  2.5.a, b,  4.4
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs)  3.3.a, b
Expectation of the correct form / sound sequence  1.5
External feedback loop  1.3,a, b,  3.1
Extreme capsule fiber system (ECFS)  4.2,  4.4

 

F

False alarms (premature reactions)  3.3.a, b
Fear of stuttering  2.2,  2.5
Features of stuttered words  2.5.a, b
Feedback
– based control of a sensorimotor sequence  1.1,  2.2
– proprioceptive, tactile, kinaesthetic ~ of speech  1.1
Feedforward control  1.1,  2.2,  2.4
Feedforward models  1.3
Finger-tapping tasks  3.3.a, b
Fluency-enhancing conditions  0,  3.1.a, b  4.1
Fluency-shaping therapy  3.4
Frontal cortex  3.2
Functional connectivity (in the speech/language network)  3.2,  4.4

 

G

Gender ratio (prevalence of persistent stuttering)  3.3,  4.4
Genetic factors  0.a, b,  3.3
Gentle voice onset  3.4
GODIVA (computer model of speech production)  2.1.1
Grey matter  3.2.a, b

 

H

Haloperidol  2.1,  2.1.1
Hearing  3.3
– loss / deafness and stuttering  1.3,  3.1
Hickok, Houde, and Rong (2011) – theory by ~  2.1.1
Hyperactivity / ADHD  3.3
Hypervigilance  3.3

 

I

Impulsivity  3.3
Incorrect predictions  2.1.1
Incremental sentence planning  2.2,  2.4,  2.5
Inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)  3.2  4.1,  4.2
Information load of stuttered words  2.5
Inhibitory control  3.3,  4.3
Inner speech  1.3.a, b, c.  1.5,  3.1.a, b, c, d
Interhemispheric balance (auditory cortices)  3.3
Interhemispheric inhibition  3.2
Internal feedback loop  1.3,a, b,  3.1
Invalid error signals  2.1.a, b,  2.1.1.a, b,  2.3,  2.5

 

J

Juggling and white matter development  4.1

 

K

Kassel Stuttering Therapy  3.4
Kinesthetic feedback
– of speech  1.1,  1.3,  1.4,  2.4
– of breathing  2.2.a, b, c

 

L

Language
– abilities of children who stutter  2.2
– acquisition and white matter development  4.1
– comprehension system  1.3,  2.3
– dominant brain hemisphere  3.2
– processing in stutterers  3.3
Lateralization of brain activity during speech  3.2,  4.4
Lateral premotor system  2.1.1
Learning theory  3.1
Lee Effect  1.1,  2.4
Levelt model of speech processing  1.1,  1.3.a, b,  1.4.a, b,  1.5,  2.1
Linguistic stress  2.4,  2.5
Loss of control  0,  2.5

 

M

Main Interruption Rule  2.1,  2.2.a, b,  2.4
Maintenance of stuttering  3.3a, b,  R  4.4
Male/female ratio (prevalence of persistent stuttering)  3.3,  4.4
Masking – auditory ~  0,  1.3,  3.1.a, b, c
Max et al. (2004) – theory by ~  2.1.1
Medial premotor system  2.1.1
Meta analysis of brain imaging studies  0,  2.3
– Brown et al. (2005)  0
– Budde, Barron, and Fox (2014)  0,  3.1,  3.2
Metronome– speaking paced by the rhythm of a ~  0,  3.1  4.1
Middle temporal gyrus  4.3
Mismatch – between expectation and perception  2.1.a, b,  2.3
– negativity (MMN)  2.1,  2.3.a, b,  3.3
Modified Phonation Interval (MPI) Therapy  3.4
Monitoring (self-monitoring) – conscious ~ in learning a sensorimotor sequence  1.1
– of breathing  2.2
– of speech  1.3.a, b,  1.5,  2.1.a, b,  2.3,  2.4
– of speed, volume, pitch, and articulation 1.3
– oversensitive ~ (theory by Vasic and Wijnen)  2.1.1
– pre-articulatory ~ (Levelt model)  1.4.a, b
Motor abilities of stutterers  3.3.a, b
Motor cortex  3.2,  4.2
Motor programs – see ‘speaking programs’
Mouthing (speaking without phonation)  1.3  3.1.a, b
Muscular tension  2.1,  2.5
Myelination  4.1

 

N

Natural Method – in therapy / self help  3.4
Neurogenic stuttering  0,  2.1.1
Nonwords, pseudowords  1.2,  1.4,  4.4.a, b
Normal disfluencies versus stuttering  2.1,
Normal speech – fluent speech of stutterers as ~  0

 

O

One-word utterances  2.4
Onset of childhood stuttering  2.4,  4.2
Otoacoustic emissions  3.2,  3.3
Oversensitive self-monitoring (theory by Vasic and Wijnen)  2.1.1
Overt speech – versus inner speech  3.1

 

P

Paced speech  3.1
Parkinson’s disease and stuttering  2.1.1
Pausing  3.4.a, b
Perceptual Loop Theory  1.1,  1.3.a, b, c,  3.1
Persistent stuttering  2.5,  3.3,
Phoneme discrimination (deficits in stutterers)  4.4
Phonetic plan  1.3.a, b,  1.4
Phonological encoding  1.2.a, b,  1.4
Phonological monitoring  2.1,  4.4
Planum temporale asymmetry  R
Position of stuttering events
– at utterance onset  2.2,  3.4
– in sentences  2.2,  2.5.a. b, c
– in syllables  1.2
– in words  2.1.a. b
– not at word-initial position  2.1,  2.5
Pre-articulatory monitoring  1.4.a, b
Predisposition for stuttering  2.1.1,  3.3
Prevalence of stuttering – male/female ratio  3.3,  4.4
Primary symptoms of stuttering  2.1.a, b
Prolonged speech  3.4.a, b
Proprioceptive feedback
– of speech  1.1,  1.3,  2.4
– of breathing  2.2.a, b, c
Pseudowords, nonwords  1.2,  1.4,  4.4.a, b
Psychogenic stuttering  0

 

Q

Questions a theory of stuttering should answer  0

 

R

Reaction time  3.3
– of the monitoring system  1.1,  2.1.a, b, c
Recovery from stutterering  0,  3.2,  3.3,  4.2,  4.4
Regulated breathing  2.2
Repair techniques – to overcome a block  3.4
Representation (of information in the brain) 4.3
Right frontal operculum (RFO)  3.2
Rhythm  3.1,  3.3

 

S

Secondary auditory areas of the cortex  0
Secondary symptoms of stuttering  2.2,  2.5,  3.2
Self-monitoring
– conscious ~ in learning a sensorimotor sequence  1.1
– of breathing  2.2
– of speech  1.3.a, b,  1.5,  2.1.a, b,  2.3,  2.4
– of speed, volume, pitch, and articulation 1.3
– oversensitive ~ (theory by Vasic and Wijnen)  2.1.1
– pre-articulatory ~ (Levelt model)  1.4.a, b
Sensorimtor sequence  1.1
Sentence
- length and stuttering frequency  2.2
- planning  2.2.a b,  2.3,  2.4,  2.5.a, b,  3.3
- position of stuttering events  2.2,  2.5.a. b, c
Sex ratio (prevalence of persistent stuttering)  3.3,  4.4
Shadowing – of speech  0,  3.1.a, b  4.1,  4.4
Short-term-memory  2.4,  4.3
Singing  0.,  3.1
Somatosensory cortex  2.2
Sound localization ability  3.3
Speaking
– in an altered manner  0
– paced by the rhythm of a metronome  0  4.1
– programs (speech motor programs)  1.2.a, b,  1.4,  2.4
Speech
– acquisition and white matter development  4.1,  4.4
– error – see ‘error detection’
– inner/internal ~  1.3.a, b, c,  1.5,  3.1.a, b, c, d
– normal / fluent ~ of stutterers  0
– sound discrimination (deficits in stutterers)  4.4
– spontaneous ~  1.3,  1.5,  2.2  3.4
– planning  2.2.a b,  2.3,  2.4,  2.5.a, b,  3.3,
– processing – model of ~  1.4,  1.5
– units  1.2.a, b,  2.2.a, b
SpeechEasy (AAF device)  3.1
Splenium of the corpus callosum  4.2
Stress (emotional) – as a trigger of stuttering  2.3
Stress (linguistic) and stuttering  2.5
 2.5
Structural differences in speech-related brain areas  3.2  4.1,  4.2
Stutterer – as a politically incorrect term  0.
Stuttering
– at word initial position  2.1
– at the onset of an utterance  2.2.a, b
– neurogenic ~  0
– persistent ~  2.5
– psychogenic ~  0
– severity  0,  2.1,  3.3
– symptoms – see ‘symptoms of stuttering’
– within words, i.e., not on the first syllable  2.1,  2.5
Stuttering-like versus normal disfluencies  2.1
Superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)  4.1,  4.2,  4.4a, b
Superior temporal gyrus (STG)  3.2.a, b,  3.4  4.1,  4.2,  4.3
Supramarginal gyrus  2.2,  4.2
Supplementary motor area (SMA)  3.2
Syllable  1.2.a, b,  2.1,  2.5  3.1
Symptoms of stuttering
– primary  2.1.a, b, c
– secondary  2.5,  3.2
Syntactic complexity and stuttering frequency  2.2

 

T

Tactile feedback of speech  1.1,  1.3,  1.4,  2.4
Temporal cortex  0,  3.2  4.1,  4.2
Thalamus  2.1.1  4.1,  4.2
Theory of stuttering – requirements  0
Therapy of stuttering
– consequences from the present theory  3.4,  4.4
– fluency shaping  3.4
– gentle voice onset  3.4
– Kassel Stuttering Therapy  3.4
– Modified Phonation Interval (MPI) Therapy  3.4
– Natural Method  3.4
– Pausing  3.4.a, b
– prolonged speech  3.4.a, b
Thinking – see ‘verbal thinking’
Timing – stuttering as a ~ disorder  3.3.a, b
Tongue twisters  2.5
Treatment – see therapy

 

U

Units – see ‘speech units’
Utterance onset – stuttering at ~  2.2,  3.4

 

V

Van Riper – citations  Home,  1.2,  2.4,  3.1
Variability of stuttering  2.5
Vasic and Wijnen – theory by ~  2.1.1,  2.3
Ventral stream (dual stream model)  4.4
Verbal thinking (inner speech)  1.3.a, b, c.  1.5,  3.1.a, b, c, d
Verbal working memory  4.3.a, b, c
Voluntary (volitional) versus automatic behavior  3.2
Vowel duration  2.4

 

W

Wernicke’s aphasia  1.2,  3.1
Wernicke’s area  4.1,  4.2,  4.4
Whispering  3.1.a, b
White matter  2.1.1,  3.2.a, b, c, d,  4.1,  4.2,  4.4
– and working memory  4.3
Word length and stuttering frequency  2.5
Word position of stuttering events  2.1.a, b
Word repetitions  2.1.a, b,  4.4
Working momory  2.3,  2.4.a, b,  4.3,  4.4

 

X

 

Y

 

Z

 

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